Double Page Spread – Design Process

I tried a variation of different layouts and images to see which would best suit the ideologies of my chosen subculture, also paying close attention to the resolution of the images, so when I come to print, they won’t come out pixelated or fuzzy.

I started by trying the rule of thirds approach, with an image spread over the two pages. Although eye catching with the contrast in colours, I don’t feel the image screams vespa or Lambretta, or even mods in general. I tried to add repetition in the form of two circular shapes, one showing the Lambretta logo, and the other with an image of Mary Quant, signifying the style of the 60s that mods would relate to.

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I tried the same design but with a different image. I found it challenging to source a high resolution image from the internet that represented the ideologies of my subculture.

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My final design I think works well and feels very balanced. The image i’ve used on the right page is an icon of the youth subculture as it has a physical resemblance to the signified. I also used the Lambretta logo bleeding off the left of the page. I did this so add some sort of depth, as if the design is live and flowing through the magazine. I also liked the use of hairlines throughout the design, and how the heading and introductory paragraph are centre aligned at the beginning of the page. This shows a clear segregation from the body text, but keeps balance with the weight of the image on the right hand side of the page.

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Further Development of Front Cover

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After finishing my first front cover design, I looked at it and picked it apart using pmi, identifying what worked well in the design and what I could do to improve it.

Overall I was quite happy with the design, however I thought it looked quite flat and the signifiers might not portray the subculture in the right light. With this in mind, I had a think about what being a mod was all about. I identified that moral panic between mods and rockers was something that was quite prominent in mod subculture.  I went back to the drawing board and looked at how I could get the sense of panic in the design, whilst retaining the signifiers arranged in a different way.

I took the black daisy out as I think this flat shape makes the design look 2 dimensional and lacking depth. To add depth, I sourced an image of an article from the 60’s showing medias portrayal of both the mods and rockers to the public. I felt this gave that busy, hectic, panic feeling to the reader, whilst still relating to the brief and the style of Creative Review.

I also extruded the Lambretta logo at a 45 degree angle, bleeding off the page and adding depth to the design. I wanted to make the bikes look like they were coming out of the extruded Lambretta logo, showing almost like a transporter effect from past to present, signifying a revival amongst mods.

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Test Print

I printed my designs onto low quality a4 paper to see how the design looks after printing, with emphasis on the quality of the images and how the type sits on the page.

Generally I liked the overall outcome of both the front cover and the double page spread. I was slightly worried about the image of the article behind the bikes and the Lambretta logo being pixelated and would show the important elements of the article. However, after printing and looking at the result, I feel everything is in order, and even though the body text of the article isn’t readable, it gives it a dated and worn look. The contrast in colours from black and white to red white and blue shows a revival from past to present.

Shannon & Weaver

The model is specially designed to develop effective communication between receiver and sender. They found factors that would effect the communication process called “Noise”.

The model deals with various concepts like information source, transmitter, Noise, channel, message, receiver, channel, information destination, encode and decode.

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Sender – Where the message originates/ the information source.

Encoder – The transmitter which converts the message into signals.

Note – The sender’s messages converted into signals lie waves or binary data which is compactable to transmit the message through cables or satellites. For example: In telephone the voice is converted into wave signals and it transmits through cables.

Decoder – the reception place of the signal which converts signals into message. A reverse process of encode.

Note – The receiver converts those binary data or waves into message which is comfortable and understandable for receiver. Otherwise receiver can’t receive the exact message and it will affect the effective communication between sender and receiver.

Note – Based on the decoded message the receiver their feed back to sender. If the message distracted by noise it will affect the communication flow between sender and receiver.

Noise – The messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through channel. During this process the messages may distracted or affected by physical noise like horn sounds, thunder and crowd noise or encoded signals may distract in the channel during the transmission process which affect the communication flow or the receiver may not receive the correct message.

 

Practical Example

Thomson made call to his assistant “come here I want to see you”.  During his call, noise appeared (transmission error) and his assistant received “I want” only. Again Assistant asked Thomson (feedback) “what do you want Thomson”.

Sender       :   Thomson

Encoder     :   Telephone (Thomson)

Channel     :   Cable

Noise          :   Distraction in voice

Reception  :   Telephone (Assistant)

Receiver     :   Assistant.

Due to transmission error or noise, Assistant can’t able to understand Thomson’s messages.

*The noise which affect the communication flow between them.

Design Process – Page layout Indesign

In order to have structure to work with, I measured key dimensions of the margins in which the content sits in. This is important as the brief says to design in the style of creative review. After measuring the front cover, it was clear there was a 7mm gap all the way around apart from the bottom, which had a 9mm gap.

I also measured the size of the whole document  in order to get the right dimensions when initially setting up the document.

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After getting the correct dimensions, I implemented this into indesign, where I was able to change the height and width of the document, and change the margins to what I had already measured.

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Page Layout Terminology

I took the time to have a look a the terminology used in the publishing world to describe elements of page layout. I found this useful as I didn’t previously understand the different phrases used for different elements.

Alley – the space between columns within a page, not to be confused with gutter, which is the combination of the inside margin of the two facing pages

Banner – The title of the periodical, which appears on the front cover of the magazine and on the first page of the newsletter. It contains the name of the publication and serial information, date, volume, number.

Bleed – when the image is printed to the very edge of the page

Block Quote – a long quotation – four or more lines – within body text, that is set apart in order to clearly distinguish the author’s words form the words that the author is quoting.

Body/Body Copy – the main text of the work but not including headlines.

Boosts – picture boost pic promoting a feature or story in the later pages.

Strap Boost – as previous, but with a strapline, not a picture.

Byline – a journalist’s name at the beginning of a story.

Callout – An eplanatory leabl for a illustration, often drawn with a leader line pointing to a part of the illustration

Center of visual interest (CVI) – the prominent item on a page usually a headline, picture or graphic.

Column Gutter – The space between columns of type.

Copy – Main text of a story.

Cross Head – a few words used to break up large amounts of text, normally taken from the main text, typically used in interviews.

Cutlines – Explanatory text usually full sentences, that provides information about illustrations. Cutlines are sometimes called captions or legends.

Deck – A headline is made up of decks, each set in the same style and size of type. A multi deck heading is one with severl headings each different from the next and should not be confused with the number of lines a heading has. A four line heading is not the same as a four deck heading.

Drop Cap: A large initial letter at the start of the text that drops into the line or lines of text below.

Feature – a longer, more in-depth article.

Facing pages – in a double-sided document, the two pages that appear as a spread when the publication is opened.

Flush left – copy aligned along the left margin.

Flush right – copy aligned along the right margin.

Golden Ratio – the rule devised to give proportions of height to width when laying out text and illustrations to produce the most optically pleasing result. Traditionally a ratio of 1 to 1.6.

Justify – the alignment of terxt along a margin or both margins. This is achieved by adjusting the spacing between the words and characters as necessary so that each line of text finishes at the same point.

Kicker – The first sentence or first few words of a story’s lead, set in a font size larger than the body text of the story.

Masthead – magazine term referring to the printed list, usually on the editorial page of a newspaper or magazine, that lists the contributors. Typically this would include the owners, publishers, editors, designers and production team. The masthead is often mistakenly used in reference to the flag or nameplate, which actually refers to the designed logo of the publication

Negative space/white space – the area of page without text, images or other elements.

Noise – A noisy image or noisy scan is one where there are random or extra pixels that have degraded the image quality. Noise in a graphics image can be generatyed at the scanning stage, by artificially enlarging an image by interpolating the pixels, or by over-sharpening a digital photograph. Noise can sometimes also be found in photographs taken by some  cheaper digital cameras.

Overline – introductory headline in a smaller text size above the main headline

Pull Quote  – A brief phrase (not necessarily an actual quotation) from the body text, enlarged and set off from the text with rules, a box, and/or screen. It is from a part of the text set previously, and is set in the middle of a paragraph, to add emphasis and interest. A quote or exert from an article that is used as display text on the same page to entice the reader, highlight a topic or break up linearity.

Recto – right-hand page

Rivers – a river is a typographic term for the ugly white gapes that can occur in justified columns of type, when there is too much space between words on concurrent lines of text.

Running head – A title or heading that runs along the top of a printed publication, usually a magazine.

Sell – short sentance promoting an article, often pulling out a quote or interesting sentence.

Splash – main front page story.

Standfirst – will usually be written by the sub-editor and is normally around 40-50 words in length. Any longer and it defeats its purpose, any shorter and it becomes difficult to get the necessary information in. Its purpose is to give some background information about the writer of the article, or to give some context to the contents of the article. Usually, it is presented in type size larger than the story text, but much smaller than the headline.

Strapline – similar to a subhead or standfirst, but used more as a marketing term.

Talkie Headline – a quote from one of the people in the story used as a headline

Tag line – A short memorable line of cover text that sums up the tone of the publication

Tombstoning – in page layout, to put article side by side so that the headlines are adjacent. The phenomenon is also referred to as bumping heads.

Top Heads – headlines at the top of a column.

Widow – last line of paragraph appearing on the first line of a column of text.

Wob – white text on a black or other coloured background.

DesigningWithType_Parts of a pageExtracted from Designing with Type: A Basic Course in Typography by James Craig

Cultural Capital

Cultural Capital – is having assets that give us social mobility. Interestingly it has no relation to finance, so we have the power to control goal and become successful, rising up the social ladder. We all have cultural capital, we have different skills and tastes in music, clothes, and past experiences.

In plain term its the ideas and ideas and knowledge that people draw upon as they participate in social life. Everything from rules of etiquette to being able to speak and write effectively can be considered as cultural capital.

Cultural capital can be split into three categories:

  • Institutionalized – education or specialised knowledge
  • Embodied – personality, speech, skills
  • Objectified – clothes or belongings

Financial Capital

On the other hand, financial capital is measurable in numbers. For example, Bill Gates is worth $79 billion dollars. This isn’t just in monetary terms, it takes into account his possession of stocks and the monetary value of them.